The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), in collaboration with the Air Vehicle Intelligence and Autonomy (AVIA) Lab at Pennsylvania State University (PSU), completed testing of cooperative autonomous soaring algorithms used to keep unmanned sailplanes aloft for sustained flight durations, the company said.
The testing demonstrated the concept of shared soaring data between two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in flight.
During the weeks of September 28 and October 26, the team launched 23 flights over a nine-day period resulting in greater than 30 hours of combined flight.
The tests, conducted within restricted airspace at Phillips Army Airfield, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, culminated with two ´powered´ sailplanes sharing telemetry data and cooperatively and autonomously soaring at altitudes in excess of one kilometer and for flight durations of over five hours.
The NRL-developed Autonomous Locator of Thermals (ALOFT) autonomous soaring algorithm guided NRL´s aircraft. The PSU aircraft was guided onboard by the AVIA-developed AutoSOAR autonomous soaring algorithm, which drew inspiration from NRL´s ALOFT techniques. AutoSOAR´s addition of a series of atmospheric mapping and collision avoidance algorithms demonstrated in-flight cooperation between the two aircraft on multiple flights.
Both aircraft demonstrated a robust autonomous soaring capability during the two weeks of testing. PSU´s aircraft flew multiple 2.5-hour flights despite carrying a battery with only enough capacity for four minutes of motor run-time. NRL´s best soaring flight was 5.3 hours while only running a motor-driven propeller for 27 minutes. Both aircraft rode thermals to altitudes in excess of 1,400 meters with several individual climbs in excess of 1,000 meters using nothing more than the power of the atmosphere.
Future testing will focus on reducing the separation distance such that both aircraft can actively soar in the same thermal at the same altitude. The team will also investigate the inclusion of solar photovoltaics to the cooperative autonomous soaring techniques, enabling long endurance flights of unmanned sailplanes using the power of the sun.
Solar photovoltaics will allow conversion of solar radiation directly to electricity to charge batteries or provide power for longer endurance or payloads. NRL is developing “drop-in” power electronics and solar wings, which will enable charging batteries and aiming for overnight flight.
The Naval Research Laboratory is the Navy´s full-spectrum corporate laboratory, conducting a broadly based multidisciplinary program of scientific research and advanced technological development.